Functional Properties of Breadfruit Flour and Its Application in Processed Meat

dc.contributor.advisorBohrer, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Shiqi of Food Scienceen_US of Guelphen_US of Philosophyen_US Scienceen_US
dc.description.abstractThe compositional and functional properties of breadfruit flour and comminuted beef/beef emulsions prepared with breadfruit flour were studied. The breadfruit flour was compared with traditional flour sources (wheat, soy, corn, tapioca) and a tropical flour source (banana). Native breadfruit flour had high content of starch (66.59% - 73.39% on a dry-matter basis) and greater water/oil holding capacity than traditional flour sources, yet was similar in those traits when compared with banana flour. Native breadfruit flour had high viscosity during heating. Cooking loss was reduced in beef emulsions prepared with breadfruit flour compared with control (no flour added) samples, and decreased as flour inclusion level increased. Hardness (measured with texture profile analysis) was lower in beef emulsions prepared with breadfruit flour compared with those prepared with wheat, corn, and tapioca flour, and decreased as flour inclusion level increased. Instrumental redness of comminuted beef prepared with breadfruit flour was the greatest during a 7-day simulated retail display compared with traditional flour sources and control samples, and increased as flour inclusion level increased. The pasting temperature of unmodified breadfruit flour was approximately 77°C. Breadfruit starch did not completely gelatinize after cooking (72°C) and was not fully functionalized in comminuted meat. This led to research on pre-gelatinization of breadfruit flour. Breadfruit flour was extruded using different conditions which included last barrel temperature (80°C or 120°C) and feed moisture content (17% or 30%). Four extruded flours with different mechanical (specific mechanical energy, SME) and thermal (melt temperature) energies were obtained. Swelling power was increased in all extruded treatments at temperatures below gelatinization of the native starch (<70°C), while water holding capacity and solubility were dramatically increased in the low-SME and high-SME extruded flours, respectively. Addition of extruded flours did not change cooking loss, instrumental redness, and viscoelasticity of cooked meat emulsions compared with native flour and control samples. Extrusion conditions, particularly those with high thermal energy, altered hardness of meat emulsions. Incorporation of extruded breadfruit flours can modify the structural and technological attributes of beef emulsions compared with native flour, but technological function of beef emulsions formulated with different extruded flours were not different.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada's Discovery Grants Program
dc.description.sponsorshipMeat Education and Training Network (MEaTnet)
dc.identifier.citationHuang, S., & Bohrer, B. M. (2020). The effect of tropical flours (breadfruit and banana) on structural and technological properties of beef emulsion modeling systems. Meat Science, 163, 108082.
dc.publisherUniversity of Guelphen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectmeat emulsion modelingen_US
dc.subjectbreadfruit flouren_US
dc.subjectmeat processingen_US
dc.subjectmeat ingredientsen_US
dc.subjectextruded flouren_US
dc.subjectcomminuted beefen_US
dc.subjectprocessed beef productsen_US
dc.subjectmeat color stabilityen_US
dc.subjectmeat texture propertiesen_US
dc.subjectpasting propertiesen_US
dc.subjectflour modificationen_US
dc.subjectmeat scienceen_US
dc.subjectfood scienceen_US
dc.subjectnovel ingredientsen_US
dc.subjecttropical fruiten_US
dc.subjecttropical flouren_US
dc.subjectmeat qualityen_US
dc.subjectmeat batteren_US
dc.subjectprotein gelsen_US
dc.subjectmeat emulsionen_US
dc.subjectprocessed meaten_US
dc.subjectfunctional propertiesen_US
dc.subjecttropical fruit flouren_US
dc.subjectmeat rheological propertyen_US
dc.subjectpregelatinizied starchen_US
dc.subjectpregelatinizied flouren_US
dc.titleFunctional Properties of Breadfruit Flour and Its Application in Processed Meaten_US


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