Incorporation of Lutein into Wholegrain Bread as a Functional Ingredient and Antioxidant
The lutein carotenoid plays significant roles in human health but its consumption is low worldwide. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of using different baking formulas and lutein forms on lutein distribution and stability in wholegrain bread to improve its lutein content and antioxidant properties. One bound wholegrain breads were made using three lutein forms (lutein powder, lutein in oil emulsion, and lutein in ethanol suspension) with two baking formulas (basic and enriched). Lutein and other carotenoids were measured in bread loaf, crust, top crumb and center crumb. Lutein-enriched breads had significantly higher lutein compared with the non-enriched respective ones. The lutein powder with basic formula was more effective in preserving lutein during baking process. The lutein content remained fairly stable during bread storage at room temperature up to 7 days. Enrichment of wholegrain bread with lutein resulted in significant increases in antioxidant properties as measured by three assays DPPH, ABTS and ORAC, particularly for breads made from the enriched formula. The study provides insights into the production of wholegrain bread enriched with lutein to boost lutein consumption and its anticipated positive health effects. More research is needed to investigate lutein bioavailability and health benefits of the developed products.