Surplus Dairy Calf Transportation: Effects on Lying Behavior and Investigating Nutritional Strategies to Improve Health, Growth, and Behaviour
The objective of this thesis was to investigate the impact of long-distance transportation on calf health and welfare using a multidisciplinary approach. This thesis investigates the effect of 6, 12, and 16 h of transportation on surplus calf lying behaviour. Calves transported for 12 h and 16 h spent less time lying down and a greater number of lying bouts on the day of transportation than calves transported for 6 h. Calves transported for 16 h had the greatest lying time on the day following transportation. This thesis also assessed the effect of feeding calves a high sodium (ORS-D) or potassium oral rehydration solution (ORS-T), or milk replacer (MR) during a mid-transportation rest period on health and behaviour outcomes. Calves fed ORS-T or ORS-D had more fat mobilization than calves fed MR. Calves fed ORS-T tended to have a higher level of diarrhea and respiratory disease than calves fed MR.