Polyphase glacigenic deformation in the Waterloo Moraine, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada

Weaver, L.
Arnaud, E.
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Sedimentary Geology

A sedimentological investigation of Quaternary sediments in the Waterloo Moraine was conducted to characterize the nature of deformation in stratified sediments in the Kieswetter Holdings Ltd. aggregate quarry, Kitchener, Ontario. Highly deformed interbedded clay, silt, fine- to very coarse-grained sand and granular to cobble gravel is exposed in two sets of contiguous panels. Analysis of the sediment revealed five recognizable stratigraphic units: 1) climbing ripple cross-laminated silt, 2) normally graded cobble gravel, 3) cross-bedded, fine- to coarse-grained sand, 4) interbedded clay, silt and fine- to very coarse-grained sand with granules and 5) crudely channelized interbedded medium- to very coarse-grained sand and granule to pebble gravel. These units suggest rapid deposition and fluctuating energy in a subaqueous environment prior to deformation. Deformation structures include normal faults with offsets ranging from 1-50 cm, widespread occurrences of density-driven ductile deformation ranging from 0.5-5 cm, open to closed folds (cm to m scale), as well as an isolated occurrence of overturned fold ranging in size from 0.5 cm to approximately 1.2 m. Abundant reverse faulting with offsets ranging from 0.5-7 cm (average of 2 cm) and widespread occurrences of boudinage and bed attenuation as well as shear folds ranging in scale from 0.5 cm to 1.5 m were also observed. The nature and scale of deformation structures suggest complex polyphase deformation of heterogeneous sediments related to rapid sedimentation, sediment gravity flow, active ice deformation and melting of buried ice in a dynamic subaqueous environment.

Waterloo Moraine, deformation in stratified sediments, Kieswetter Holdings Ltd., Kitchener Ontario