Observer perceptions of pain in children with cognitive impairments: Vignette development and validation
Aims: (1) develop vignettes depicting pain in children with cognitive impairments manipulating pain source and child’s verbal ability, and (2) conduct initial validity analyses. Materials/Methods: Seventy-six undergraduate students (38 female, Mage = 19.55) responded to six vignettes by rating (0-10): (1) pain intensity, (2) how difficult it was to rate pain intensity , (3) perceived need for medical attention and (4) perceived need for other attention (e.g., physical comfort). Results: Participant ratings significantly varied by pain source (e.g., a headache was rated more painful compared to injections). Verbal ability had no impact on ratings. Conclusions: These vignettes could serve as ethical and effective alternatives for gathering information from caregivers about pain in children with CI.