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Investigation of the Efficacy, Acceptability, and Isoflavone Bioavailability of a Soy Flour Muffin for Reducing Biomarkers of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Hypercholesterolemic Adults

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Title: Investigation of the Efficacy, Acceptability, and Isoflavone Bioavailability of a Soy Flour Muffin for Reducing Biomarkers of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Hypercholesterolemic Adults
Author: Padhi, Emily Mary Tara
Department: Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences
Program: Human Health and Nutritional Sciences
Advisor: Duncan, AlisonRamdath, D. Dan
Abstract: Functional foods are designed to deliver a concentrated source of bioactive compounds and represent an opportunity to enhance human health and lower disease risk. Soybeans are a valuable source of nutrients and are a potential functional food ingredient as they contain bioactive compounds, such as isoflavones, that may lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, efficacy and acceptability assessments are required to understand the value of soy in health promotion and whether including it in the diet is feasible. De-fatted whole soy flour (DWSF) is a major source of dietary soy and can be used to manufacture a variety of soy-based food products; however, processing soybeans can impact the bioactivity and bioavailability of bioactive compounds, which may influence the associated health benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that soy be examined according to food form. The objectives were to: (1) assess the effect of DWSF on lowering LDL cholesterol and other biomarkers of CHD risk when consumed as a baked muffin; (2) determine the bioavailability of soy isoflavones from a baked soy muffin in plasma during a period of daily consumption; and (3) examine the consumer liking of soy flour muffins and the role of a government-approved health claim on willingness to consume. To achieve these objectives, healthy adults with hypercholesterolemia consumed soy flour muffins daily for 6 weeks but did not experience significant changes in plasma lipids, glucose, insulin resistance, or C-reactive protein (P>0.05) despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavone concentrations (P<0.001). However, soy flour muffins were rated between “like slightly” and “like moderately” by trial participants and a government-approved health claim increased willingness to consume (P<0.01). Overall, DWSF baked in a muffin does not improve biomarkers of CHD risk and, therefore, optimal use of soy ingredients in functional foods may necessitate a closer examination of the effect of food processing on its associated health benefits. Nevertheless, the bioavailability of bioactive soy isoflavones from DWSF was demonstrated and soy flour muffins were moderately accepted by consumers, indicating potential for soy-based food products in the functional food market.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10214/9245
Date: 2015-09-16


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