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The Protective Effects of Exercise Against Acute Inflammatory and Metabolic Challenges

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Title: The Protective Effects of Exercise Against Acute Inflammatory and Metabolic Challenges
Author: Castellani, Laura
Department: Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences
Program: Human Health and Nutritional Sciences
Advisor: Wright, David
Abstract: It is well appreciated that exercise is associated with improvements in metabolic health, though the specific mechanisms underlying these processes remain to be fully understood. As such, the work presented in this thesis highlights the beneficial effects of exercise with respect to protecting against acute inflammatory and metabolic challenges. First, study one identified the protective effect of chronic exercise training against an acute inflammatory challenge with the beta-3 adrenergic agonist CL 316,243. Specifically, it was revealed that CL 316,243 activates markers of inflammation in white adipose tissue of lean male mice and that this response was attenuated with 4-weeks of exercise training. The blunted CL 316,243-induced inflammation was matched by reductions in the protein content of the pro-inflammatory ion channel TRPV4. To further explore the relationship between regular exercise training and adipose tissue inflammation we next examined the inflammatory response associated with a single, acute bout of moderate exercise. Notably, although IL-6 expression and signaling were induced in response to acute exercise, this occurred independent of changes in other traditional markers of adipose tissue inflammation (i.e. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, JNK phosphorylation). Moreover, activation of IL-6 signaling in response to an acute bout of exercise is amplified with regular exercise training. In study three, we found that a single bout of exercise protects against metabolic disturbances associated with a single dose of the antipsychotic olanzapine. This was paralleled by improvements in insulin tolerance, reductions in hepatic glucose output and alterations in fuel utilization. The studies in this thesis are the first to note i) that regular exercise training protects against CL 316,243 induced activation of adipose tissue inflammation; ii) that acute exercise-induced increases in IL-6 signaling are amplified in adipose tissue after chronic exercise training; iii) That a single bout of exercise protects against olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia. In all, this work contributes significantly to our understanding of adipose tissue dependent and independent benefits of exercise.
Date: 2017-06-22

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